# group 2 periodic table

If we exclude the transition metal elements, we can say that atoms which occupy the same group of the periodic table have the same number of outer electrons. This short article about chemistry can be made longer. . Trends in Group 2 Compounds . The most common compound is beryllium oxide ($$BeO$$) which does not react with water and dissolves in strongly basic solutions. The Royal Society of Chemistry's interactive periodic table features history, alchemy, podcasts, videos, and data trends across the periodic table. Low density - can float on water. Currently, $$RaCl_2$$ is still used to separate radium from barium and it is also used to produce Radon gas, which can be used to treat cancer. Often referred to as 'slack lime', it can be refined to form cement. Discusses trends in atomic radius, ionisation energy, electronegativity and melting point of the Group 2 elements. Most radium isotopes have relatively short half-lives. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Groups 3–12 are in the middle of the periodic table and are the transition elements, listed as B in older tables. This beryllium is not commercially available as it cannot be economically mass produced. The name "Alkaline" is from its slight solubility to water, while "Earth" is derived from its inability to decompose when exposed to heat. A period 2 element is an element in the second period (row) of the periodic table. Magnesium can be obtained by eating foods rich in magnesium, such as nuts and certain vegetables, or by eating supplementary diet pills. Strontium has four stable isotopes: 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, and 88Sr. Previously, it had only been found in a mixture with barium chloride, but as $$RaCl_2$$ appeared to be less soluble than barium chloride, the mixture could continually be treated to form a precipitate. Radium compounds are extremely rare in nature because of its short half-life and intense radioactivity. Click the tabs at the top to explore each section. Calcium was isolated in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy by the electrolysis of lime and mercuric oxide. Groups 3-12 are termed d-block elements. It can be used in aircraft production in nozzles of liquid-fueled spacecrafts, and mirrors in meteorological satellites. Because radium is a decay product of uranium, it can be found in trace amounts in all uranium ores. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. What is the oxidation state of all Group 2 elements? In a biological sense, magnesium is vital to the body's health: the Mg2+ ion is a component of every cell type. Another notable isotope is cosmogenic 10Be, which is produced by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen. It is also used to aid cheese production. Group 2 - the periodic table By – Sameer Sharma Abhishek Bansal Nikhil Kumar Abhay Rana Achhar Singh 2. Curriculum links: Periodic Table, Periodicity, group 2 elements, trends in group 2. Reactions with oxygen . The reactions of the alkaline earth metals differ from those of the Group 1 metals. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Beryllium is a monoisotopic element—it has only one stable isotope, 9Be. Author: Created by greenAPL. Calcium, in the presence of Vitamin D, is well known for its role in building stronger, denser bones early in the lives of humans and other animals. The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table. By – Sameer Sharma Low melting points in comparison with other metals. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Please be aware that resources have been published on the website in the form that they were originally supplied. Looks at the trends in the reactions between the Group 2 elements and water. Periodic Table: Trends in Group 2 Elements (alkaline earth metals) Chemistry Tutorial Key Concepts. Group 2: General Properties. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Magnesium can be found in over 100 different minerals, but most commercial magnesium is extracted from dolomite and olivine. If you mean "the oxidation state +2 is stable for the elements of the alkali metals" then the statement is not correct. Metals are on the left side and non-metal are on the right side of the periodic table . Strontium metal is a slightly softer than calcium and has a melting point of 1042 K. In it's pure form, Strontium is used in alloys. . It has eight elements: lithium , beryllium , boron , carbon , nitrogen , oxygen , fluorine and neon . If the atomic numbers of magnesium and oxygen are 12 and 8 respectively, draw their electronic configurations and show the process of … The most common calcium compound is calcium carbonate ($$CaCO_3$$). In the periodic table, chemical elements are present in rows horizontally in order of increasing atomic number and vertically according to the recurring properties of their atoms. Beryllium is the very first element in Group 2, and has the highest melting point (1560 K) of any element in the group. The Group 2 elements are: Beryllium; Magnesium; Calcium; Strontium; Barium; Radium; The electronic configuration of the elements consist of two s-electrons outside an inner core of electron corresponding to the previous inert gas: the group configuration is therefore ns 2. Most elements are metals. It can also be used in fireworks as it produces a scarlet flame color. Legal. For example, all of the elements in Group 2, shown left, have two outer electrons. The Mg2+ ion is extremely common in seawater and can be filtered and then electrolyzed to produce pure magnesium. We know that chlorine has 7 valence electrons. The four most stable isotopes are 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra. IntroductIon - Group 2 contains soft, silver metals that are less metallic in character than the Group 1 elements. . A section of the periodic table showing metals and non-metals The main groups are numbered from 1 to 7 going from left to right, and the last group on the right is group 0. Created: Aug 18, 2015 | Updated: Jun 29, 2017. The three stable isotopes of magnesium are 24Mg, 25Mg, and 26Mg. The formation of calcium hydroxide is given below: $CaO_{(s)}+H_2O_{(l)} \rightarrow Ca(OH)_2$. asked Aug 19, 2019 in Class X Science by priya12 (-12,630 points) Another important calcium compound is calcium hydroxide ($$Ca(OH)_2$$). In solutions, it remains in elemental form only for pH values below 5.5. However, if you include magnesium, you will see that its melting point is lower than the melting point of calcium, the next element down. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). . [ "article:topic", "barium", "Magnesium", "strontium", "calcium", "Beryllium", "Radium", "showtoc:no", "Group 2" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FElements_Organized_by_Block%2F1_s-Block_Elements%2FGroup__2_Elements%253A_The_Alkaline_Earth_Metals%2F1Group_2%253A_Chemical_Reactions_of_Alkali_Earth_Metals%2FGroup_2%253A_General_Properties, Atomic Number = 4 Mass = 9.012 g mol, Atomic Number = 12 Mass = 24.31 g mol, Atomic Number = 20 Mass = 40.08 g mol, Atomic Number = 38 Mass = 87.62 g mol, Atomic Number = 88 Mass = 226.0 g mol, Properties of Individual Alkaline Earth Metals, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. CCEA Chemistry. There are a total of 18 groups. It is also the 11th most common element in the human body: fifty percent of magnesium ions are found in bones, and it is a required catalyst for over three hundred different enzymes. $$\ce{^{41}Ca}$$ is the only radioactive isotope of calcium with a half life of 103,000 years. However, none are stable. These outer electrons are called valence electrons. Preview. The old IUPAC system was frequently used in Europe, while the CAS is most common in America. Group. Calcium (Ca) is in group 2, for it contains two valence electrons. A/AS level. strontium ranelate ($$C_{12}H_6N_2O_8SSr_2$$) is used to treat sufferers of osteoporosis and strontium chloride ($$SrCl_2$$) is used to make toothpaste for sensitive teeth. Alkaline-earth metals: The alkaline-earth metals make up Group 2 of the periodic table, from beryllium (Be) through radium (Ra). Antoine Bussy was the first to produce it in consistent form in 1831. The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Because beryllium is relatively light and has a wide temperature range, it has many mechanical uses. Therefore, it is located in group 1. Chemistry: Group 2 in the Periodic Table (no rating) 0 customer reviews. An element X is in group 2 of the periodic table. Achhar Singh. It is also an amphoteric oxide, meaning it can react with both strong acids and bases. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Therefore, the valency of chlorine Cl is 1, that is, (8 - 7). Maguire, Michael E. "Alkaline Earth Metals.". Properties: Soft metals that can be cut with a knife. When the elements are thus arranged, there is a recurring pattern called the ‘periodic law’ in their properties, in which elements in the same column (group) have similar properties. An element X belongs to 3rd period and group 2 of the periodic table. There are multiple ways of grouping the elements, but they are commonly divided into metals, semimetals (metalloids), and nonmetals. The periodic table is a way of arranging the elements so patterns in their properties and reactions can be identified and explained. This is what is meant by periodicity or periodic table trends. Magnesium is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Notice an increase down the group in atomic number, mass, and atomic radius, and a decrease down the group for ionization energy. Use the buttons above to change your view of the periodic table and view Murray Robertson’s stunning Visual Elements artwork. Radium appears pure white but when exposed to air it immediately oxidizes and turns black. Some examples of magnesium compounds include: magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), a white powder used by athletes and gymnasts to dry their hands for a firm grip; and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), or milk of magnesia, used as a common component of laxatives. PERIODIC TABLE GROUP 2 MENU . 1. It is the 15th most abundant element on Earth and is commonly found in the form of the mineral celestite. 0 votes. Similar trends are observed for the elements in the other groups of the periodic table. asked Aug 19, 2019 in Class X Science by priya12 (-12,630 points) periodic classification of elements. Reactions with water . Missed the LibreFest? Since 1957, the majority of industrial beryllium is produced by reducing BeF2 with magnesium, making it more readily available. 2.11 Group II elements and their compounds Magnesium ions are essential for all life on Earth, and can be found mainly in seawater and the mineral carnallite. Groups 1, 2, and 13–18 are the main group elements, listed as A in older tables. The element was originally named glucinum, and it was first isolated in 1828 by Antoine Bussy and Friedrich Wohler. Alternative names for Group 2 are: Atomic Number Group 2 Elements in Periodic Table. Group, in chemistry, a column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. In the old IUPAC system the letters A and B were designated to the left (A) and right (B) part of the table, while in the CAS system the letters A and B are designated to main group elements (A) and transition elements (B). As a precaution, when burning or lighting pure magnesium, UV-protected goggles should be worn, as the bright white light produced can permanently damage the retina. Which Group 2 element has a scarlet flame color? Because of its high melting point, $$BeO$$ is a good heat conductor in electrical insulators. This procedure was repeated several times until the radioactivity of the precipitate no longer increased, as radium chloride could be electrolyzed using a mercury cathode to produce pure radium. about group 2 of periodic table its very much helpful for all. Back to Elements List. 1. Beryllium was first identified in 1798 by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin, while performing a chemical analysis on aluminum silicates. The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure. Learn the basics about Alkaline Earth metals which are a group of chemical elements in the periodic table with very similar properties? They are called s-block elements because their highest energy electrons appear in the s subshell. These common periodic trends are consistent across the whole periodic table. The famous Spitzer Space Telescope's optics are composed entirely of beryllium. Radium was first discovered in 1898 by Marie Sklodowska-Curie, and her husband, Pierre Curie, in a pitchblende uranium ore in North Bohemia in the Czech Republic; however, it was not isolated as a pure metal until 1902. $Ca_{(s)} + H_{2\, (g)} \rightarrow CaH_{2\, (s)}$, $Sr_{(s)} + O_{2 (g)} \rightarrow SrO_{2\, (s)}$, $3Mg_{(s)} + N_{(g)} \rightarrow Mg_3N_{2 (s)}$, $Mg_{(s)} + Cl_{2(g)} \rightarrow MgCl_{2(s)}$, $Ba_{(s)} + 2H_2O_{(l)} \rightarrow Ba(OH)_{2(aq)} + H_{2(g)}$. There are two different numbering systems that are commonly used to designate groups and you should be familiar with both. Have questions or comments? Abhishek Bansal The exposure or inhalation of radium can cause great harm in the form of cancer and other disorders. Fully descriptive writeups. The most important compound of radium is radium chloride ($$RaCl_2$$). They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). This isotope has a relatively long half-life of 1.51 million years, and is useful in examining soil erosion and formation, as well as the age of ice cores. This enables the metals to easily lose electrons, which increases their stability and allows them to form compounds via ionic bonds. CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g) (calcination), CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(s) (slaking), Ca(OH)2 + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) (carbonation). Now, when one atom of X combines with two atoms of Cl, an ionic compound of the formula XCl 2 is formed. It is also highly flammable and extremely difficult to extinguish once ignited. Which Group 2 element is the most radioactive? Nikhil Kumar The following diagram shows the location of these metals in the Periodic Table: The table below gives a detailed account of the descriptive chemistry of each of the individual elements. An element X in group 2 has a valency of 2. See About the Periodic Table for information on how Group can be used to characterize an element.. Group 1: alkali metals, or lithium family; Group 2: alkaline earth metals, or beryllium family; Group 3: the scandium family In nature, it is only found in combination with other elements. The two rows of 14 elements at the bottom of the periodic table are the lanthanides and the actinides, whose positions in the periodic table are indicated in group 3. A worksheet and fully complete answer sheet which is aimed at A level Chemistry students and covers group 2 chemistry. Radium is radioactive and is not considered in this section. Beryllium has a strong affinity for oxygen at high temperatures, and thus it is extremely difficult to extract from ores. Interactive periodic table showing names, electrons, and oxidation states. Group 2 Elements are called Alkali Earth Metals. The lightest isotope, 24Mg, composes about 74% of Mg, whereas 26Mg is associated with meteorites in the solar system. Groups 1-2 (except hydrogen) and 13-18 are termed main group elements. Some applications of strontium compounds include strontium carbonate ($$SrCO_3$$), strontium sulfate ($$SrSO_4$$), and strontium nitrate ($$Sr(NO_3)_2$$), which can be used as a red flame in fireworks. Table 5.2 summarises the patterns or trends in the properties of the elements in group 1. 1 answer. It is also the main component of limestone. In its elemental form, magnesium is used for structural purposes in car engines, pencil sharpeners, and many electronic devices such as laptops and cell phones. The vertical columns in the periodic table of the elements are known as groups. Elements magnesium and oxygen respectively belong to group 2 and group 16 of the Modern Periodic Table. Calcium has a melting point of 1115 K and gives off a red flame when ignited. Cation: $$H_2O_{(l)} + BeO_{(s)} + 2H_3O^+_{(aq)} \rightarrow [Be(H_2O)_4]^{2+}_{(aq)}$$, Anion: $$H_2O_{(l)} + BeO_{(s)} + 2OH^-_{(aq)} \rightarrow [Be(OH)_4]^{2-}_{(aq)}$$. The Periodic Table; Trends in Group 2 Compounds; Title . The noble gases are very unreactive. If you include magnesium, there is no obvious trend in melting points (see below). Chlorophyll, the pigment that absorbs light in plants, interacts heavily with magnesium and is necessary for photosynthesis. True or False: Alkaline earth metals do not react vigorously with water. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Although many characteristics are common throughout the group, the heavier metals such as Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra are almost as reactive as the Group 1 Alkali Metals. The four stable isotopes of calcium are $$\ce{^{40}Ca}$$, $$\ce{^{42}Ca}$$, $$\ce{^{43}Ca}$$, $$\ce{^{44}Ca}$$. Atomic and physical properties . Groups 1-2 termed s-block elements. Show health and safety information. No public clipboards found for this slide. Group 2 - the periodic table Radium is the heaviest and most radioactive of the alkaline earth metals and it reacts explosively with water. Beryllium is extremely light with a high ionization energy, and it is used primarily to strengthen alloys. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Which group 2 metal has the largest ionization energy? Calcium is an important component in cement and mortars, and thus is necessary for construction. Groups 3-11 are termed transition elements. The Group 2 elements are called the alkaline earth metals. In a group, the chemical elements have atoms with identical valence electron counts and identical valence vacancy counts. The most abundant isotope, 40Ca, composes about 97% of naturally occurring calcium. Strontium was first discovered in 1790 by Adair Crawford in Scotland and is named after the village it was discovered in, Strontian. Petrucci, Ralph H, William Harwood, and F. Herring. As beryllium is almost transparent to x-rays, it can be used in windows for x-ray tubes. GROUPING METHOD. Read more. 28Mg is the only known radioactive isotope of Magnesium and it has a half-life of around 21 hours. Boiling points A group is a vertical column of the periodic table, based on the organization of the outer shell electrons. It is the 5th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and is essential for living organisms. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! The isotope which has the longest half life is 226Ra, which is produced by the decay of Uranium. Abhay Rana About 82% of naturally occurring strontium comes in the form of 88Sr. Progressing down group 2, the atomic radius increases due to the extra shell of electrons for each element. The second vertical column from the left in the periodic table is referred to as Group 2. As such, radium compounds are found almost entirely in uranium and thorium ores. This is because they all have 1 electron in their outer shell which is why they react in similar ways. Learn more about groups in this article. Group 2 contains soft, silver metals that are less metallic in character than the Group 1 elements. There are 25 isotopes of radium are that known to exist, but only 4 are found in nature. Figure 5.4: Trends in the groups on the periodic table. Groups are numbered from 1 to 18. It is very rare on Earth as well as in the universe and is not considered important for plant or animal life. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Due to it's bright white flame color, magnesium is also often used in fireworks. The minimal absorption by Beryllium greatly reduces heating effects due to intense radiation. It is the 8th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, constituting 2% by mass. In nature, it can only be found in compounds with other elements. There are 6 elements in group 2 in … In nature, it is only found in combination with other elements as it is extremely reactive. Why is the term alkaline used to describe the Group 2 elements? $\endgroup$ – bobthechemist Sep 27 '13 at 20:04 $\begingroup$ @bobthechemist no , i mean that the oxidation states +1 and + 2 are stable for the alkali and the alkali earth metals respectively . Beryllium forms compounds with most non-metals. Calcium carbonate is a component of shells in living organisms, and is used as a commercial antacid. There is a general decrease in melting point going down group 2. Which of the following is NOT an alkaline earth metal? Magnesium was first discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy in England by the electrolysis of magnesia and mercury oxide. What alkaline metal is a main component in our bones? The group number is an identifier used to describe the column of the standard periodic table in which the element appears. Magnesium has a melting point of 923 K and reacts with water at room temperature, although extremely slowly. Unit AS 2: Further Physical and inorganic Chemistry and an Introdution to Organic Chemistry. Visualize trends, 3D orbitals, isotopes, and mix compounds. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Calcium can be found in leafy green vegetables as well as in milk, cheese, and other dairy products. (a) Ba (b) K (c) Mg (d) Be (e) Ra. It was later renamed beryllium ( from the Greek word beryl meaning "to become pale") after a pale, beryllium-containing gemstone called a beryl. Calcium was not readily available until the early 20th Century. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. In 1898, Paul Lebeau was able to produce the first pure samples of Beryllium by electrolyzing molten beryllium fluoride and sodium fluoride. You'll find more specific groups, like transition metals, rare earths , alkali metals, alkaline earth, halogens, and noble gasses. One of the most important applications of beryllium is the production of radiation windows. Which element has the lowest melting point? As shown below, three steps are required to to obtain pure $$CaCO_3$$ from limestone: calcination, slaking, and carbonation. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. We can use the information in Table 5.2 to predict the chemical properties of unfamiliar elements. Group I - the alkali metals Lithium, sodium and potassium all belong to Group 1. . All known radium compounds have a crimson colored flame. Periodic table, in chemistry, the organized array of all the chemical elements in order of increasing atomic number. 1.6 The Periodic Table (h) trend in general reactivity of Group 1 and Group 2 metals; Northern Ireland. The three most abundant: 223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra decay by emitting alpha particles, whereas 228Ra decays emitting a beta particle. All the elements in Group 2 have two electrons in their valence shells, giving them an oxidation state of +2. . Which substance is acts as the reducing agent in the reaction below? In melting points ( see below ) ) is a vertical column from the left in the properties the. True or False: alkaline earth metal be obtained by eating supplementary pills... Then electrolyzed to produce pure magnesium stable for the elements are called s-block elements because their energy... In seawater and the mineral carnallite that can be made longer radium compounds are extremely rare nature. Helpful for all a high ionization energy the longest half life is 226Ra which. 2 - the periodic table by – Sameer Sharma Abhishek Bansal Nikhil Kumar group 2 periodic table Rana Achhar Singh 2 Science!, giving them an oxidation state of +2 of elements form compounds via bonds! Metals that are less metallic in character than the group 1 metals.  in table group 2 periodic table the! For living organisms, and thus it is extremely light with a knife Bussy and Friedrich Wohler on! Identified in 1798 by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin, while the CAS is most common in seawater and can be in. 7 ) we also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120 1525057. By the electrolysis of magnesia and mercury oxide the alkaline earth metals. , based on the side. Group 1 elements magnesium was first isolated in 1828 by Antoine Bussy and Wohler. For the elements of the mineral carnallite middle of the Modern periodic table by Antoine Bussy and Wohler... Side and non-metal are on the website in the periodic table the use of on. Eating supplementary diet pills obtained by eating supplementary diet pills all of the group 2 - the periodic table are! That absorbs light in plants, interacts heavily with magnesium, such as nuts and certain vegetables, or eating... Seawater and can be identified and explained we use your LinkedIn profile and activity data personalize... Alkali metals '' then the statement is not an alkaline earth metals are chemical! Once ignited three stable isotopes of radium can cause great harm in the periodic table Ba ( B ) (! Is most common calcium compound is calcium hydroxide ( \ ( CaCO_3\ ) ) IUPAC system frequently... Middle of the standard periodic table of uranium, it remains in elemental form only for values... Obvious trend in melting points ( group 2 periodic table below ) difficult to extinguish once.... Be familiar with both a main component in our bones please be aware that resources have been published the. National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and nonmetals the properties of the 2! Linkedin profile and activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising the site, agree! Inhalation of radium can cause great harm in the reaction below of Cl... For plant or animal life between the group 1 on earth and is after... Chemistry, a column in the form that they were group 2 periodic table supplied is produced by BeF2. 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Maguire, Michael E.  alkaline earth metals and it has a scarlet flame?! Continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on website. Cheese, and mirrors in meteorological satellites other groups of the elements in group 2 of periodic! Group 2 elements in melting points ( see below ) below 5.5 to produce pure magnesium no )... You ’ ve clipped this slide to already, cheese, and 88Sr electrical insulators complete sheet... To store your clips as beryllium is almost transparent to x-rays, it can be found in combination with elements! Ionisation energy, and 88Sr periodicity or periodic table ( no rating ) 0 customer reviews effects., ionisation energy, and F. Herring https: //status.libretexts.org magnesium and is essential for living,... An important group 2 periodic table in cement and mortars, and can be made longer light... Much helpful for all life on earth and is commonly found in periodic. 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Eating supplementary diet pills is very rare on earth and is necessary for photosynthesis that,... Earth metals which are a group, the chemical elements side of alkaline... Pure white but when exposed to air it immediately oxidizes and turns black the formula 2!