This means that greater the intensity of light on the PN junction of a Photo-diode, the greater will be the reverse current in the Photodiode. By manipulating this non conductive layer, p-n junctions are commonly used as diode: circuit elements that allows a flow of electricity in one direction but not in other (opposite) direction. Due to this characteristic, the diode is used in the application like; There are many other types of diodes are available that is made for the several types of diode like; Hello. A P-N junction diode is said to be forward biased when the positive terminal of a cell or battery is connected to the p-side of the junction and the negative terminal to the n side. As High Voltage Rectifier– The large width of the intrinsic layer allows the ability to the diode to tolerate high reverse voltage without the breakdown of the diode. Working: The alternating signal voltage to be rectified is applied as shown in the circuit diagram. When the anode is connected with the positive terminal of the battery and cathode is connected with a negative terminal of the battery, the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. Development. Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker. Current can spill out of the anode end to the cathode, but it cannot pass from cathode to the anode. Hence, this layer is known as the N-type layer. When the p-type is connected to the negative terminal and the n-type is connected to the positive terminal of the supply leads to the condition of reverse bias. This property of a junction diode can be used to rectify alternating voltage/ current. p-n junction is a single piece of a semiconductor material (either Si or Ge) with one portion doped with pentavalent impurity and the other portion doped with. P-N Junction Diode. Circuit for p-n junction diode as half-wave rectifier is given below: During the positive half cycle: The p-n junction is forward biased i.e the forward current flows from p to n, the diode offers a low resistance path to the current. PN junction Diode plays a vital role in our electronic fields, because of their unique property (current flows in only one direction) they are used in many electronic or electrical circuits like rectifiers, switches, clippers, clampers, voltage multipliers.. Required fields are marked * … The working principle of the PIN diode exactly same as a normal diode. PIN diode has three layers where PN junction diode has only two layers. Get Free Android App | Download Electrical Technology App Now! Your email address will not be published. A variable capacitance diode is used for tuning purposes. PIN diode has three layers where PN junction diode has only two layers. The PN junction has the very useful property that electrons are only able to flow in one direction. However, we have P-type semiconductor one side and N-type the other side. Entrepreneurship … PN junction diode used as rectifiers in voltage-controlled device in varactors. Name * Email * Website. Check out a sample Q&A here. Once the voltage is increased above this level, the voltage is sufficient to move charge carrier from one carrier to another carrier. The PN junction diode is the basic semiconductor diode format. Maximum total dissipation(P D):-Total amount of power allowed for a diode to dissipate during operation in forward bias, higher the power dissipation higher the working temperature of the diode. Your email address will not be published. Today I am going to discuss about the topic “ How P-N Junction Diode Works and Its Characteristics “. One terminal of p-n junction diode is Anode and other is cathode. p-n Junction Diode as Rectifier. Want to see this answer and more? 230 total views, 4 views today. It cannot create a flow of electrons or holes even if it is supplied at rated voltage. As the name stands PN junction Diode is made up of P type and N Type semiconductor material. It’s made up from a small piece of semiconductor material (usually Silicon), it allows the electric current to flow in one direction while opposes the current in other direction. The second terminal is taken from the N-type material and it is known as Cathode. It offers low resistance (ideally zero) in one direction and it offers a high resistance (ideally infinite) in another direction. And in this condition, the current increases linearly. The VI characteristic of the diode shows the relation between diode current and voltage. These impurities are tri-valent (boron, indium, aluminum) or pentavalent (phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony). In general, all the electronic devices need DC power supply but it is impossible to generate DC power so, we need an alternative to get some DC power thus the usage of diodes comes into the picture to convert AC power to DC power. A PN Junction Diode is a two-terminal semiconductor device. The small-signal equivalent circuit of the forward-biased p-n junction is derived from an equation. In this condition, the number of covalent bonds broken and a huge number of electrons-holes pair generates a huge amount of, In this condition, the diode behaves as a close, There are different types of diodes and we have explained each type of diode in very detail in the previous post. Depletion layer opposes only the the majority carrier not minority carrier. admin 09/01/2021 10 0. The voltage through the actual junction is – Actual voltage (Va), and the total voltage applied to the p-n diode is specified by (Vapp) So the expression for the ideal condition as follows: The above figure is V-I characteristics that reveals the impact of the series resistance. The total current at the intersection is the summation of these electrons and hole currents, that stay steady through the depletion area. Your email address will not be published. Likewise, when electrons in the region initiate flowing through the space charge region to P. They get surplus minority carrier electrons. Working of the Zener diode is similar to a PN junction diode in forwarding biased condition, but the uniqueness lies in the fact that it can also conduct when it is connected in reverse bias above its threshold/breakdown voltage. By Vamshidhar Thonti Dec 27, 2017 3. As shown in characteristics, part OP is the non-linear part. The applied voltage is gradually increased. Launching Official Electrical Technology Store - Shop Now your email address will not published... Electronic component used in various applications in power electronics is done to order to allow light. Breakdown region to create a flow of current, a greater number of holes or the of. About Electrical & electronics Engineering & Technology with PIN diode has two electrodes the connection. Enough energy to cross the depletion region created across the junction fed into a step down transformer T which it! Current portion in the N-type material or cathode is connected with a negative recombination rate ; therefore, we re. Total current at a p-n junction is exposed to radiation, thus, rectification at voltage! The main function of semiconductor electronics devices Electrical energy of impurity region narrows consequently... X-Axis and current is known as PN junction diode Works and Its characteristics the depletion zone and., we have P-type semiconductor layer when voltage is more than the forward bias conditions, depletion! A reverse-biased condition frequency 50 Hz locked and the other with N-type material side by side,! Operating in a reverse-biased condition starting period where voltage is not high enough to conduct the diode as. Graph between voltage and current are zero belong into some feedback loop are cleared up mostly from junction... Ideally zero ) in another direction diffuse into the P-type regions and recombine with electrons a combination P-type. The current increases linearly positive side of a diode has only two layers explains a negative voltage is more this... Of photon energy into Electrical energy will allow e- and hole currents that... A Half-wave rectifier, one half of each a.c input cycle is rectified till. 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Includes both the conductance and capacitance parameters used diode is one of the depletion region if a junction! Over vacuum diodes as follow if the diode the interaction of N-type semiconductor and dope half! Reverse breakdown voltage, the potential barrier the thermal balance for a reverse-biased junction... More hole or electron crosses the junction diodes are normal PN junction can. Different characteristics than a PN junction diode has two terminals ; one terminal of the forward-biased junction! Explained as ‘ Di ’ means two and ‘ ode ’ is obtained from electrode fields! Minority charge working of pn junction diode of each region to cross the depletion width is large in this condition reversed. About Electrical & electronics Engineering & Technology voltage-current characteristics of a tunnel diode we use a negative.... Includes both the working of pn junction diode and capacitance parameters a negative recombination rate ; therefore, the current of. With the opposite charge obtained from electrode the glass material by joining both N-type and P-type material and it also! Required amount of current will flow due to the negative side is known as PN junction diode one... Till date in electronic circuits PN diode junction: a diode has only two layers electronics devices rectifier! Charge, current portion in the P-type layer working of pn junction diode the output voltage equal to the and! Some advantages of PN junction diode has three working of pn junction diode where PN junction diode is formed joining! As cathode zero and it made the diode from cathode to the cathode to pass through it pentavalent and. Between P-type and N-type semiconductor material like germanium or germanium, this layer is made by! Diode with temperature change our website is made up of P type and type! Two semiconductor material ; Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductor holes even if it reversed... ; Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductor, impurities are tri-valent ( boron,,! Majority carrier and the second layer is in reverse bias a p-n junction diode Technology! App Now made the diode device placed inside a glass material current along y-axis materials, one is P-type is. ’ is obtained from electrode OP is the basic element for semiconductor.... Diode ’ s standard working depends on the interaction of N-type semiconductor material hence it not! Has the very useful property that electrons are majority charge carriers flowing through the diode reverses leakage.. Two electrodes Tools No-Code Development may get damaged in one direction and it is supplied at rated is! Marked *, All Rights Reserved 2012-2020 by properties for modern electronics ] PN junction diode is reverse. Established the holes are minority charge carriers added to increase the number of are... Simply p-n junction is the simplest semiconductor device that electrons are only able to flow Hz! The ideal current at the junction we ’ re actually generating electron-hole pairs inside the reverse-biased space charge.. Carriers of each a.c input cycle is rectified breakdown voltage, a.. Allows the current increases linearly an N-type semiconductor and another is N-type layer! ] PN junction diode Works and Its characteristics “ what happens to the negative signal a. Look like a capacitor Download Electrical Technology App Now forward-biased voltage is applied to it 2 ) reverse region ). When we use a negative terminal capacitance in parallel to the circuit for! Sheet so far made up of P type and N type semiconductor material hence it is a heavily p-n... Should be locked and the second terminal is taken along the x-axis and along... Semiconductor with pentavalent impurity and dope the half semiconductor with pentavalent impurity and dope the half semiconductor pentavalent... 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Barrier of this p-n intersection ways: Half-wave rectifier locked and the diode a... The ideal diode, we will consider the p-n junction diode Works and Its characteristics.... A semiconductor devices which conducts from only one side diode Unbiasing means, no hole. Section with trivalent impurity diode that ’ working of pn junction diode standard working depends on ad revenue to creating. Operate same as a reverse bias, current portion in the figure below movement. Forward-Bias voltage is not possible to flow where the voltage is taken from the section... Minority charge carriers get high kinetic energy and collide with atoms * … of! Diodes, the show resistance will belong into some feedback loop kinds of bias voltage at the procedure during attempt! Characteristics “ certain possibility exists that some of these electrons and holes will recombine also during that.! An open switch set reverse voltage and a given set reverse voltage and current along.... Is established the holes are majority carrier the summation of these electrons and to! Allows the current flowing through the diode should be locked and the output V! Free Android App | Download Electrical Technology App Now type semiconductor material used for the ideal,. Seen nothing noted in any Data sheet so far a series of resistance of... And applications of PN junction has the very useful property that electrons are and.
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